Impacts of Cocoa Sustainability Initiatives in West Africa
This scientific article analyses the social, economic, and environmental effects of voluntary standards initiatives and corporate initiatives in the cocoa sector in West Africa, largely focusing on farm and farmer group. It is based on empirical evidence from large-scale, mixed-method studies using a suite of socioeconomic, agronomic, and environmental indicators to compare the situation of certified with non-certified farmers in 2012 and 2015 in Ghana, and 2013 and 2017 in Ivory Coast. The results show that, on average, outcomes are mixed and generally modest. However, significant cocoa productivity and income increases were experienced by certified farmers receiving a full package of services.
Reference: Ingram V, Van Rijn F, Waarts Y, Gilhuis H. The Impacts of Cocoa Sustainability Initiatives in West Africa. Sustainability. 2018; 10(11):4249. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114249