The Rainforest Alliance is committed to monitoring and assessing the impacts of our work so that we can communicate results to our stakeholders and continuously improve the effectiveness of our programs. A dedicated Evaluation and Research team leads this evaluation work using three different approaches.
First, we collect basic data for all farms or farm groups, forestry enterprises, tourism businesses, and carbon projects participating in field projects or certification, validation, and verification audits. These program-wide monitoring data—which include variables such as the number of workers, harvest volumes, geographic location, and the number of hectares set aside for conservation—are analyzed to document the reach of the Rainforest Alliance’s programs and characteristics of the producers with whom we work.
To understand changes in production practices and outcomes in greater detail, we also conduct more intensive sampled monitoring on a subset of the farms, forestry enterprises, and tourism businesses with whom we work. This monitoring is typically conducted on a time-series basis, for instance, to compare conditions before and after certification, verification, or technical assistance. When feasible, we also collect data from a control group for comparison purposes.
Finally, we support focused research to test specific hypotheses about program impacts and to evaluate broader or longer-term results, for instance at a landscape scale. To provide an independent perspective, such research is usually conducted by third parties, with the Rainforest Alliance’s input limited to hypothesis development, logistical support, or assistance with interpretation of the findings.
Rainforest Alliance-Led Evaluations and Analysis
The Evaluation and Research team produces a variety of analyses and studies to document results and evaluate effectiveness of the Rainforest Alliance’s programs and standards. These range from analysis of certification compliance data to landscape-level spatial analyses. The team also develops methodologies and thought pieces to help define good practice and improve the effectiveness of sustainability standards.
A full list of the Evaluation & Research team’s completed publications can be found here, while summaries of planned and in-progress studies are here. Here are a few recent highlights:
With a special focus on the themes of farmer and farm-worker livelihoods, conservation of natural ecosystems, and reduction in pesticide use and risk, the report documents the progress that farmers have made toward addressing these challenges, and highlights areas of where further work is needed.
Recently published in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, this paper examines the performance of 106 hotels in six Latin American countries against the sustainable tourism criteria most directly related to biodiversity conservation.
This report describes the array of tools that the Rainforest Alliance has developed to monitor environmental performance and track results over time.
New and Noteworthy Third-Party Research
In recent years, universities and research institutions have conducted numerous studies to evaluate the impacts of Rainforest Alliance certification or training, often in comparison to a non-certified control group. These studies provide valuable independent assessments of the results of our work.
ISEAL, WWF and Rainforest Alliance have developed a new website, Evidensia, which brings together credible research into the effects and impact of sustainability initiatives to enable more informed decisions. The site contains features such as a searchable library and visual summaries of results. It hosts evidence and information on a range of sustainability supply chain tools and approaches, including standards, company sourcing codes and jurisdictional approaches. Evidensia covers a broad range of issues, from climate change and deforestation to livelihoods and human rights.
This evaluation study, conducted by the Wageningen Economic Research and commissioned by the Rainforest Alliance, compared certified banana farms to similar non-certified farms in the region of Magdalena, one of Colombia’s main banana producing regions. The research found that wages and working conditions on certified farms are slightly better, that certified farms take more safety precautions regarding pesticide use and worker safety, and that a higher percentage of workers on certified farms perceive the farm’s grievance mechanism as safe. In response to the findings of the study [PDF], the Rainforest Alliance acknowledges that this study may not be representative for the majority of certified banana farms in Colombia, and explains how it will follow up on the main recommendations of the report.
This study found that Rainforest Alliance Certified coffee forests experienced improved forest quality over time, while drastic forest degradation was observed in non-certified areas. Natural forests nearby the certified coffee forest also had less degradation than other forests located further away. The study concludes that Rainforest Alliance certification is effective in alleviating forest degradation both in the certified area and in the surrounding natural forest.
Researchers found that poverty incidence on Ugandan coffee farms was significantly lower in triple RA/UTZ/4C-certified households compared to non-certified, and that total household income, per-capita income, coffee income, coffee yield, and labor productivity were all significantly higher.
Researchers compared FSC® /Rainforest Alliance CertifiedTM forestry concessions and non-certified concessions in Indonesia over eight years and found that FSC certification significantly reduced deforestation and air pollution.
Researchers in Colombia found that SAN/Rainforest Alliance Certified coffee farms had higher tree species diversity than non-certified farms, and that children on certified farms stayed in school two years longer.
Using spatial analysis and habitat modeling, this study found that SAN/Rainforest Alliance Certified coffee farms control deforestation and provide habitat connectivity better than non-certified farms.
How You Can Get Involved
The Rainforest Alliance recognizes the important role of the research community in evaluating and ultimately helping to improve the effectiveness of certification and other kinds of sustainability programs.